суббота, 9 июля 2016 г.



Let's consider what is a "spectrum", and also, why and how it arises.  
In physical experiments spectra are usually obtained by "light" transmission or through the prism, either through the narrow slits or tiny holes in the dense material. Based on the method of producing the spectra can be prismatic and interferential.
Spectrum - is a visible on the screen range of six colors smoothly transitioning from one to another. The spectrum is formed by "visible" photons of different quality.
As already stated, a light beam - this is the path traveled by "visible" photons (by elementary particles in a broader sense) in the environment.  Otherwise, we can say that this is  the way "burnt through" by visible photons (elementary particles). Herewith, photons (elementary particles) in the composition of the light beam emitted by the light source move all together. This means that visible photons of different quality don't move by different ways. Then why we see on the screen strips of different colors? Because the following occurs. 
First, we consider the mechanism of "decomposition of light" with the help of glass triangular prism. I. Newton used in his experiments  exactly such prisms. The triangular prism has three tops and three bases. In experience one of the tops of the prism was located down, and the opposing base was up.  As we remember, the violet strip in the spectrum was located on the screen closer to the base, and the red - closer to the top. The base of the prism contains more chemical elements than the top.  So, the total gravitational field of the base of the prism is more than of its top. It is this fact along with limitation the amount of light falling on the prism becomes a cause of appearance on the screen of the rainbow stripes - spectrum. The explanation is quite simple. We have already given it earlier. Let's repeat in general terms. 
Chemical elements of glass that form the prism - silicon, oxygen and metal impurities. Silicon and metal impurities are characterized by the largest Fields of Attraction compared with oxygen.  

Chemical elements of glass of the prism create the Force of Attraction in photons, which are part of the prism. Respectively, the total Force of Attraction near the base of the prism is larger than it is at the top, because  the total number of elements in the base is larger. The Force of Attraction acting from the side of the top is not big. It weakens the effect of the Attractive of the base, but so insignificantly  that almost insensibly. 
Each photon included in the material of the prism has the Force of Inertia, that moves it forward. Herewith, as already mentioned in color theory, there are photons of three primary colors - blue, yellow and red - with different speed (or amount) of destroyed (disappeared) ether.  During motion as a part of the total flow the visible photons of different quantity have the different magnitude of the Force of Inertia. Force of Attraction and  Force of Inertia interact in each photon in accordance with the Rule of Parallelogram.  
The Resultant Force is a diagonal of parallelogram constructed on the vectors of both Forces as on the sides. As a result each photon is deflected on a strictly defined angle in accordance with direction of the vector of the Resultant Force.  And we can observe the result of this deviation on the screen in the form of spectrum, where photons with different Force of Inertia deviate from the initial trajectory by their own angle. 
We can observe separation of the light beam to the spectrum only because that a very small number of visible photons enters the prism.  Do you remember, in the experience we limit the amount of "light" making a hole in the thick curtain? If the prism was illuminated by the day light, we would not have seen on the screen the spectrum.  This is explained by the fact that the total brightness of the transmitted and reflected light at day illumination would be so large that would exceed the threshold of distinction our visual analyzer.  Such a bright light we characterize as "white".
Here is a description of the interference picture.

"If we use white light representing a continuous set of wavelengths from 0,39 micrometers  (the violet boundary of the spectrum) to 0,75  micrometers  ( the red boundary of the spectrum), then the interference maxima for each wavelength will be ... shifted relative to each other and will have the form of rainbow stripes. Only for m=0 (m - this is the maximum, the author's footnote) maxima of all wavelengths coincide, and in the middle of the screen we will observe the white strip, on both sides of which we will see the symmetrically located spectrally colored stripes of maxima of first, second order, etc. (zones of violet color will be closer to the white strip, father - thу red zones)". (TI Trofimova, "The course of physics").
And here is the description of Fraunhofer diffraction at a single slit.  During illumination of the slit by white light the central maximum has the form of a white strip; it is common for all wavelengths (if φ = 0 the path difference is equal to zero for all λ). The Side maxima are rainbow colored because the condition of maximum for any "m" is different for different "λ". Thus, right and left of the central maximum we can observe the maxima of first..., second... and other orders facing by the violet edge toward the center of the diffraction pattern. However they are so blurred that it's impossible to obtain a clear separation of different wavelengths with the help of diffraction at a single slit". (TI Trofimova, "The course of physics").  
In the glass prism the elements of oxygen included in the glass composition were a conducting medium for "visible" photons. And in the holes and slits done in a dense material - mainly there is nitrogen of the air. However, the reason of occurrence and prismatic spectrum, and  diffractive-interferential is the same - gravitational fields of chemical elements.  In the prism this attraction from the side of the prevailing number of elements in the base. And in a hole or a slit this is because the attraction from the side of chemical elements of air at the same time with the weakening of the light flux due to the attraction  of photons of elements of the dense material, in which they are made. 
Any diffractive-interferential pattern – this is a projection on the screen of chemical elements filling the slits or holes.  Dark areas  correspond to arrangement of chemical elements. We can observe the spectrum only because the narrow slit (or the hole) transmits very little of visible photons, a significant part of which by the way is absorbed by the elements of material, where we made a slit or a hole. Exactly the weakening of the luminous flux gives us the opportunity to observe, how the chemical elements of the slit (hole) reject the moving photons by their attraction. The Force of Inertia makes photons to move. Rivalry of the Inertial Force and the Force of Attraction from the side of each chemical element in the slit or in the hole leads to emergence of the Resultant Force.  The vector of this Force will indicate the direction of motion of photons. So occurs the emergence of rainbow maxima on the screen. 

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